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The halfcourt line divides basketball's playing surface into the frontcourt and the backcourt. But the line isn't just a cosmetic addition to a basketball court. There are several limitations on the offense in which the midcourt stripe is a key factor.
Eight- or 10-Second Rule
At every level of American basketball except the NBA, the offense has 10 seconds to advance the ball across the halfcourt line, after it takes possession in the backcourt. In the NBA, the offense must advance to the frontcourt in eight seconds. At all levels of American play, the clock resets if the defensive team knocks the ball out of bounds or is called for a foul, or if a jump ball is called and the team previously on offense wins the tap. A team is considered to have crossed midcourt when the ball and both of the ballhandler's feet are in the frontcourt. A violation of the eight- or 10-second rule results in the defense being awarded possession of the ball.
International rules employ the eight-second limit. The clock is reset by a defensive foul, but is not reset if the ball goes out of bounds, an offensive player is injured or if a jump ball or double foul is called.
Over and Back
When a team has possession of the ball in the frontcourt it may not move the ball across the half-court line into the backcourt. A violation of this rule -- commonly known as the over-and-back rule -- turns the ball over to the opposing team. A violation does not occur if the ball is knocked into the backcourt by the defensive team and recovered by the offensive squad. Likewise, if a rebound is tapped back across midcourt and the previous offensive team gains possession, it's not a violation because the rebound is considered a loose ball, and not in possession of either team. But if a dribbler in the frontcourt loses possession of the ball on his own and it crosses into the backcourt without being touched by the defense, the offensive team still technically has possession and cannot be the first team to touch the ball in the backcourt.
With the exception of professional and international basketball, a team that's awarded a throw-in from the frontcourt can throw the ball to a player in the backcourt. That player may then advance into the frontcourt. Such a pass is illegal in the NBA until the last two minutes of the fourth quarter and any overtime periods. A frontcourt-to-backcourt inbounds pass is also a violation in the WNBA, until the last minute of the fourth quarter and any overtime periods. Such a pass is always illegal under international rules.
In the Air
A defensive player may intercept a pass while in the air over his frontcourt, then land with one or both feet in the backcourt without violating the over-and-back rule.